With the economic development and the increase of people's security needs, the police's monolithic social control system appears to be inadequate in maintaining social order. The emergence of security service companies has effectively alleviated this problem. But in reality, how to divide the business scope, responsibilities and powers of security service companies and public security organs, and whether security service companies can become another subject in the social control system that goes hand in hand with public security organs. This is a high-speed society and economy in China. Problems to be solved urgently in development.
The current status of the police's unified control of the main body to maintain social order
Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has developed rapidly, social transformation has accelerated, and social structure has undergone tremendous changes. Accompanying this is the weakening of social control capabilities, increasing social contradictions, and intensifying conflicts of interest. Traditional social control systems have been difficult to adapt to current social realities. China is facing the reconstruction of social control systems, but the disintegration speed and modernization of traditional factors There is a certain degree of asynchronousness in the formation of factors, which leads to a "relative vacuum" in the social control system. Therefore, there are many vacancies and loopholes in social control, leading to a certain degree of disorder in social order.
In a society governed by law, China still emphasizes on relying on the government's management power in social control. The administration has a strong color, and the enthusiasm of social forces to participate in management has not been fully mobilized, which makes it difficult to improve the effectiveness of management. In China, public security organs are the basic force for implementing social control, the main functional department of social control, and occupy an important position in the social control system.
The role of the police in social control is unquestionable, but with the development of economic and social development in various countries, the number of various types of crime has increased sharply, the means of crime have become increasingly high-tech, and people's demand for security services has increased. Relying on the police alone Public administrative forces to prevent and combat illegal and criminal activities, coupled with the provision of security services, have become even more powerless, and relying solely on the police as the main subject for social control is no longer suitable for the reality of society. The problems of the traditional police monolithic subject control system that cannot meet the increasing security needs of the society and insufficient police forces have troubled every country in the world, and all countries are also carrying out police reforms. In recent years, the tide of police reform led by foreign "political socialization" has also come across China. The concepts of “requiring police force for quality”, “requiring police force for science and technology”, “limited police force and infinite people” are frequently put forward and put into practice. Although this has alleviated the nervous police force to a certain extent and improved the work efficiency of the police, However, with the acceleration and deepening of China's social transformation, insufficient police force is still an important issue constraining public security organs.
Theoretical support and practical necessity of security service companies
Everything has its inevitability, and security service companies are no exception. In modern western society, the economy developed rapidly, and the original government management model no longer adapted to social reality. People continuously sought for the model of government reform. During this period, many theories about government reform appeared, and public governance theory was one of them. The so-called public governance theory, in short, is that the government should decentralize power, and government departments should not be overwhelmed, but they must be self-aware, do what they should do, and give away what can be given to society and the market. It is what we often say "become the helm, not the oarsman." Public governance is a new type of social management model that is different from the traditional government management model. In this model, government departments and non-governmental organizations, public agencies and private agencies cooperate with each other to share management power, and share management power through multiple management methods. Responsibility and obligation to achieve the purpose of realizing the public interest. This management model has the following three characteristics: first, seeking public interest in the goal of governance; second, diversifying the subject of governance; third, diversifying the means and methods of governance. This theory can also explain the relationship between public security agencies and security service companies. Public security organs hand over some security service business to security service companies to provide society with security services required by individual groups, which contributes to the stability of the overall social order. Second, security service companies collaborate with public security organs, and public security organs use administrative As a means for enterprises to use the market, the security service company serves as the main body of social control to maintain social order.
With the development of the economy and society, more and more citizens, enterprises, etc. have put forward more security needs, and these requirements are not so good for the public officials of the country as abandoning public services to serve a certain social individual. Reality, however, there is a market when there is demand. In today's highly developed market economy, in order to adapt to the development of the times, countries have marketed some security service businesses in succession, and security service companies have emerged at the historic moment. Public security organs allocate some security services to security service companies, on the one hand, they can save their own resources, police forces, and other resources, and on the other hand, they can meet the security needs of individual groups in society. In addition, this is also in line with the general trend of China's government agency reform. Therefore, since the establishment of China's first security service company, Shekou Security Service Company, in 1984, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China's security service industry has continued to grow.
The role of security service companies in social control systems
Security service companies have shown their advantages in maintaining social order, preventing illegal crimes, and assisting public security agencies. The creation of security service companies has actually caused the restructuring of the police system and broke the traditional unitary police control. The system transforms the traditional monolithic subject (police) into a dual subject (police, security). Although the mass security organizations such as the Security Council and the Public Security Alliance are also the mainstays of maintaining social security, the activities of these organizations are limited to a certain range, and the activities of security service companies are oriented to the whole society, so the author believes that security services The company can be regarded as another subject in the real police control system. Using public governance theory to analyze the restructuring of the police system is that the public security organ, a government department, delivers unnecessary management or service activities to the market and realizes the diversification of management subjects, thereby reducing its own burden and improving efficiency.
Since its establishment, the security service company has developed extremely rapidly. The security business has developed from a single human defense to a comprehensive security service network that integrates air defense, technical defense, dog defense, escort, security consulting, and labor export. As another main body of maintaining public order, security service companies can't be ignored. They are mainly manifested in the following three aspects:
First, assist public security organs in maintaining social order. In the process of providing security services to customers, security service companies assist public security organs in preventing and suppressing various illegal and criminal activities through standing duty, security inspections, night patrols, escorts, storage of valuable and dangerous goods, and provision of technical protection facilities, etc. An important force for maintaining social order and stability.
Second, security has increasingly become an integral part of social control systems. The security industry can undertake the police's social security precautions and alleviate the insufficient police force of public security organs. At the same time, it also meets the security needs of different levels of society, and together with the public security organs constitute a social public security guarantee system adapted to the socialist market economy system.
Third, the security industry has brought good social benefits. As a special enterprise that provides professional and paid security protection services for the society, the security service company can not only complete its own tasks, but also conduct security prevention propaganda and education for all units and the general public, while achieving its own economic benefits, it has also achieved Better social benefits.
During the security process of the Beijing Olympics, security guards were present in 31 Olympic venues, 15 non-competition venues, 23 training venues, 107 contracted restaurants, 2 media villages, 3 news centers, and other venues; excited Agent inspection samples, Olympic medals, and Olympic games firearms are escorted by Chinese security escort companies. During the Olympic Games, the performance of Chinese security guards was described as "a great victory."
The awkward position of security service companies in reality
The positive effect of security service companies on society is undoubted, but China's security industry started late, and in reality some problems will inevitably arise, such as informal security. At the same time, the relationship between the security service company and the public security organs is defined as "leadership and management", with a strong administrative color, which negates the main body status of the security industry, causing indiscriminate separation of government and enterprises, abuse of power, and poor relations. phenomenon. In order to better play the role of the social control subject of the security service company, the author believes that it is necessary to clarify its relationship with public security agencies and its business scope, power and authority.
At present, according to the "Regulations on the Administration of Security Services" (hereinafter referred to as the "Regulations") passed by the State Council in September 2009, security service companies are independent economic entities and only accept the supervision and management of public security agencies. Level relationship. This is also the transformation of the public security organs advocated by the Ministry of Public Security from "managing" security to "managing" security. But in reality, some public security agencies often regard security service companies as their own subordinate organizations or self-run enterprises, and even use the funds of security service companies as their own funds. The unsound management system of the security industry will greatly hinder its role in maintaining social order. A security service company is an enterprise that provides security services. It is an independent legal person and should be regulated by market mechanisms. Public security organs are government departments, security service companies are enterprises, and government and enterprises are separated. The services provided by security service companies can be said to be public products. Any citizen and group can properly employ security guards. Since this service is a public product, government organizations should let the security service companies provide the provision of these products. The government is responsible for supervision, thereby pursuing the maximization of social public interests. Companies such as the British "Group4" were appointed by the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1993 to manage prisons and provide security services to the courts. A security service company is not a subordinate agency or a subsidiary of a public security organ. It should establish an equal subject status of the two and establish a cooperative relationship between the security service company and the public security organ.
In addition, the "Regulations" clearly define the business of security service companies. The scope of security services specified in Article 2 includes: 1. Security service companies dispatch security guards to provide door guards, patrols, and guards for client units in accordance with security service contracts. , Escort, portable guard, security inspection, security technology prevention, security risk assessment and other services; Second, agencies, groups, enterprises, institutions recruit personnel to engage in security guards such as door guards, patrols, guards, etc .; Third, property services The company recruits personnel for door guard, patrol, and order maintenance services in the property management area. It can be seen that most of today's security service companies are engaged in low-level civil defense project activities such as door guards, guards, patrols, escorts, and security inspections.
Article 29 of the Regulations also provides for the authority of security guards. The powers of security guards are not much different from ordinary citizens. When they discover illegal crimes, they only have the obligation to whistle and protect the scene. The power of ordinary citizens to deal with this has led to an imbalance of responsibilities and powers of security guards in engaging in dangerous business. The above-mentioned management system is not smooth, and lack of power and other issues have put security service companies in an awkward position in actual operation.
Reference from foreign advanced experience
How to divide the business scope of the security service company and the public security organs, that is, what original police activities the public security organs should entrust to the security service companies, is a problem that must be solved to build a dual body of police affairs. In this regard, China does not have a clear law to classify them. In reality, the police still bear a lot of unnecessary police activities. In this regard, the author believes that China can learn from the experience of Singapore's security industry. Singapore's security industry is divided into two forms: government-run and private-run: industrial and commercial security service companies and private security service companies. Business Security Services is a government-run security agency in Singapore, affiliated with the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The status of its auxiliary police is clearly defined in the Industrial and Commercial Security Services Companies Act promulgated by Singapore. Its senior staff are appointed by the Ministry of the Interior, security guards are assigned and equipped with weapons. The only difference from the police is that it has no power to investigate and resolve cases. The industrial and commercial security service company implements paid services, and its income is not paid except for taxes, and is used for its own development. The private security industry in Singapore is also managed by the Ministry of the Interior. Security officers are not allowed to equip police equipment, and only engage in general security consulting and civil and technical defense services.
The business scope of the two security service companies in Singapore is clear. The business scope of the industrial and commercial security service company is: to undertake the security tasks of government departments, embassies of various countries in new countries, and celebrities' residences; to undertake the armed security of government law enforcement officers, bank and commercial cashiers; Guardian tasks; supply, install and maintain a security protection system designed, supply network hardware and software, and carry out network security. The business scope of the private security industry includes: trade secret cases; family breach cases and personal secret cases. Singapore's private security industry has the authority to take evidence in civil cases, which allows the police to focus their efforts on cracking down on crimes.
In view of the earlier development of the foreign security industry and the more advanced models, the author believes that the development of China's security industry can learn from foreign advanced experience. According to China's actual situation, the business scope, power and authority of security service companies and their relationship with public security agencies are legally based. Make a clear stipulation on the relationship between the security industry and the legal status of the main body of the social control system. Compared with Singapore's Industrial and Commercial Security Service Act and South Korea's Utilization of Security Industry Act, China's legislation is relatively late, which is not only detrimental to the development of the security industry itself, but more importantly, it is not conducive for security service companies to play a role in maintaining social security and The role of order.
As a security service company, it should be market-oriented, strive to expand its business scope, and consolidate and enhance its dominant position. The security industry is generated by market demand. The expansion of its business scope should also be market-oriented. Where there is demand, there should be services. When the market needs it, security service companies must do something. Of course, what is said here is legal. In the regulations on security industry promulgated by China, the scope of business of security service companies is very general, which also gives the security service companies a great deal of freedom to a certain extent. As long as they do not violate the law, business can be carried out by themselves. Private detective business is not much in China, but it is quite large in foreign countries. In addition, with the emergence of international terrorism, there have been cases where overseas personnel have been abducted and killed. How to protect the safety of these overseas personnel, security service companies can fully develop international security services to meet this demand.
In summary, the author believes that the security industry has established its own dominant position in the social control system, and its development has changed the traditional police system. At present, the development of China's security industry is still immature, and there are still many problems. How to strengthen and consolidate its own social control subject status requires a lot of efforts. With the improvement of relevant laws, the scope of business and authority are clarified, and the security industry is used as social control. The role of the new subject will become more prominent.